Recent Changes

Tuesday, May 23

  1. page German Onomastics - Given Names from Divine and Animal Sources edited ... Theriophore Namen erklären sich vielmehr generell aus der Verehrung archaischer Kulturen für d…
    ...
    Theriophore Namen erklären sich vielmehr generell aus der Verehrung archaischer Kulturen für das menschliche Fähigkeiten überragende Wesen bestimmter Tiere, die bis zu ihrer Imitation in Form der Maskierung als Tier oder autosuggestiver >>Verwandlung<< in dieses gehen und so in die religiöse Sphäre hineinreichen kann.
    Zeitlich gesehen zählen die Wolfsnamen zur ältesten Schicht, die bis in indogerm. Ursprünge zurückreicht, während etwa die Adlernamen erst bei den Germanen aufgekommen oder zu größerer Bedeutung gelangt sind.
    p. 39
    (Paragraph excerpt under section heading Lateinische Namen [Latin names])
    — Theophore Namen: In Martinus, wohl auch in Marc(ell)us steckt der Kriegsgott Mars, in Saturninus der Gott Saturn etc.

    English Translation
    Kunze, Konrad
    ...
    Theriophoric names are explained rather generally by the veneration of archaic cultures for larger than life beings with human abilities in certain animals, such that their imitation in the form of masking as an animal or through an auto-suggestive "transformation" enter into the animal and thus able to pass into a religious sphere.
    Chronologically it is observed wolf names belong to the oldest stratum, dating back to Indo-European origins, while eagle names first arose or reached greater importance during the advent of the Germanic people.
    p. 39
    (Paragraph excerpt under section heading Lateinische Namen [Latin names])
    — Theophoric Names: In Martinus, as well also in Marc(ell)us is referenced the God of War, Mars; in Saturninus the God Saturn, etc.

    1 Also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones they settled in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st C. expanded into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. A conventional term which groups early West Germanic dialects ancestral to High German is Irminonic or Elbe Germanic.
    2 Ingaevones or, as Pliny more accurately writes, Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi"), are described in Tacitus's Germania and were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands. By the 1st C. they had become further differentiated into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles. The postulated common group of closely related dialects of the Ingvaeones is called Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic.
    (view changes)
    9:40 pm

Monday, May 22

  1. page German Onomastics - Given Names from Divine and Animal Sources edited ... Abb. A zeig eine vergoldete Bronzeschnalle des 7. Jh. aus Seeland, auf der eine Männermaske sy…
    ...
    Abb. A zeig eine vergoldete Bronzeschnalle des 7. Jh. aus Seeland, auf der eine Männermaske symmetr. von Adler-, Eber- und Wolfsköpfen gerahmt wird; daneben einen Helmbeschlag aus Torslunda, auf dem Krieger mit Ebern auf dem Helm zu sehen sind.
    Diese Tiere spielen auch in den religiösen Vorstellungen der Germanen eine Rolle. Die Bedeutung teerhaltiger Rufnamen führt daher über diejenige bloßer Metaphern für kriegerische Fähigkeiten wie Schnelligkeit, Kraft usw. hinaus. Versuche, bestimmte Tiernamen direkt mit einzelnen Gottheiten in Beziehung setzen zu wollen, etwa die Wolf- und Rabennamen mit Wodan, die Ebernamen mit Fro-Freyr usw., engen allerdings die Vielfalt möglicher symbol. Bezüge solcher Namen und Tiere zu sehr ein.
    Theriophore Namen erklären sich vielmehr generell aus der Verehrung archaischer Kulturen für das menschliche Fähigkeiten überragende Wesen bestimmter Tiere, die bis zu ihrer Imitation in Form der Maskierung als Tier oder autosuggestiver >>Verwandlung<< in dieses gehen und so in die religiöse Sphäre hineinreichen kann.
    Zeitlich gesehen zählen die Wolfsnamen zur ältesten Schicht, die bis in indogerm. Ursprünge zurückreicht, während etwa die Adlernamen erst bei den Germanen aufgekommen oder zu größerer Bedeutung gelangt sind.

    English Translation
    Kunze, Konrad
    ...
    Fig A4 shows a gilded bronze buckle of the 7th Century from Zealand bearing a man's mask which is symmetrically framed by eagle, boar and wolf heads. Next to it, a helmet fitting from Torslunda, [Öland, Sweden] depicts warriors with a boar on their helmet.
    These animals play a role in the religious ideas of the Germans. Thus the meaning of given names containing animal references extends beyond that of mere metaphors for martial skills such as speed, power, etc. They desired to associate particular animal names directly in relationship with individual deities, such as the wolf and raven names with Odin, the boar names with Fro-Freyr, etc., but within the narrow range of possible symbolic references of such names and animals.
    Theriophoric names are explained rather generally by the veneration of archaic cultures for larger than life beings with human abilities in certain animals, such that their imitation in the form of masking as an animal or through an auto-suggestive "transformation" enter into the animal and thus able to pass into a religious sphere.
    Chronologically it is observed wolf names belong to the oldest stratum, dating back to Indo-European origins, while eagle names first arose or reached greater importance during the advent of the Germanic people.

    1 Also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones they settled in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st C. expanded into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. A conventional term which groups early West Germanic dialects ancestral to High German is Irminonic or Elbe Germanic.
    2 Ingaevones or, as Pliny more accurately writes, Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi"), are described in Tacitus's Germania and were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands. By the 1st C. they had become further differentiated into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles. The postulated common group of closely related dialects of the Ingvaeones is called Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic.
    (view changes)
    10:07 pm
  2. page German Onomastics - Given Names from Divine and Animal Sources edited ... Dieselben Tiere wurden auch als Bildmotiv auf germ. Waffen, Schmuck- und Gebrauchsgegenständen…
    ...
    Dieselben Tiere wurden auch als Bildmotiv auf germ. Waffen, Schmuck- und Gebrauchsgegenständen gewählt.
    Abb. A zeig eine vergoldete Bronzeschnalle des 7. Jh. aus Seeland, auf der eine Männermaske symmetr. von Adler-, Eber- und Wolfsköpfen gerahmt wird; daneben einen Helmbeschlag aus Torslunda, auf dem Krieger mit Ebern auf dem Helm zu sehen sind.
    Diese Tiere spielen auch in den religiösen Vorstellungen der Germanen eine Rolle. Die Bedeutung teerhaltiger Rufnamen führt daher über diejenige bloßer Metaphern für kriegerische Fähigkeiten wie Schnelligkeit, Kraft usw. hinaus. Versuche, bestimmte Tiernamen direkt mit einzelnen Gottheiten in Beziehung setzen zu wollen, etwa die Wolf- und Rabennamen mit Wodan, die Ebernamen mit Fro-Freyr usw., engen allerdings die Vielfalt möglicher symbol. Bezüge solcher Namen und Tiere zu sehr ein.
    English Translation
    Kunze, Konrad
    ...
    These same animals were also chosen as pictorial motifs on Germanic weapons, jewelry and artifacts.
    Fig A4 shows a gilded bronze buckle of the 7th Century from Zealand bearing a man's mask which is symmetrically framed by eagle, boar and wolf heads. Next to it, a helmet fitting from Torslunda, [Öland, Sweden] depicts warriors with a boar on their helmet.
    These animals play a role in the religious ideas of the Germans. Thus the meaning of given names containing animal references extends beyond that of mere metaphors for martial skills such as speed, power, etc. They desired to associate particular animal names directly in relationship with individual deities, such as the wolf and raven names with Odin, the boar names with Fro-Freyr, etc., but within the narrow range of possible symbolic references of such names and animals.
    1 Also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones they settled in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st C. expanded into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. A conventional term which groups early West Germanic dialects ancestral to High German is Irminonic or Elbe Germanic.
    2 Ingaevones or, as Pliny more accurately writes, Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi"), are described in Tacitus's Germania and were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands. By the 1st C. they had become further differentiated into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles. The postulated common group of closely related dialects of the Ingvaeones is called Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic.
    (view changes)
    2:40 pm
  3. page German Onomastics - Given Names from Divine and Animal Sources edited ... Insgesamt begegnen in germ. Rufnamen folgende Tiere: Adler, Bär, Bock, Eber, Falke (Habicht), …
    ...
    Insgesamt begegnen in germ. Rufnamen folgende Tiere: Adler, Bär, Bock, Eber, Falke (Habicht), Hirsch, Hund, Krähe, Marder, Rabe, Roß, Schwan, Stier, Widder, Wolf, Wurm (=Lindwurm, Schlange, Drache).
    Viele dieser Tiere sind stark, aggressiv usw.; daher dürften solche Namen in Verbindung mit der Vorstellung vom Mann als Krieger zu sehen sein. Dieser wird auch von Dichtern metaphorisch als Kampfbär, Schwertwolf usw. umschrieben, Vorstellungen, die auch in Namen wie Guntbern (‚Kampf‘ + ‚Bär‘) oder Hiltulf (‚Kampf‘ + ‚Wolf‘) wieder kehren.
    Ein lat. Evangelienkommentar des 5./6. Jh. bemerkt: >>Die Barbaren pflegen ihren Söhnen aggressive Namen von Bestien, wilden Tieren, Raubvögeln zu geben, weil sie es für ruhmvoll halten, kampftüchtige Söhne zu haben<<
    Dieselben Tiere wurden auch als Bildmotiv auf germ. Waffen, Schmuck- und Gebrauchsgegenständen gewählt.
    Abb. A zeig eine vergoldete Bronzeschnalle des 7. Jh. aus Seeland, auf der eine Männermaske symmetr. von Adler-, Eber- und Wolfsköpfen gerahmt wird; daneben einen Helmbeschlag aus Torslunda, auf dem Krieger mit Ebern auf dem Helm zu sehen sind.

    English Translation
    Kunze, Konrad
    ...
    On the whole the following animals are encountered in Germanic given names: Adler [eagle], Bär [bear], Bock [goat], Eber, Falke (Habicht) [falcon or hawk], Hirsch [stag, deer], Hund [dog], Krähe [crow], Marder [marten, weasel], Rabe, Roß [horse, thoroughbred], Schwan [swan], Stier [bull], Widder [ram], wolf, Wurm (this term encompasses Lindwurm [Wyvern, wingless dragon], Schlange [serpent, snake], Drache [dragon].
    Many of these animals are strong, aggressive, etc., therefore such names are likely to be associated with the idea of a man seen as a warrior. These are also metaphorically paraphrased by poets as Kampfbär [battle bear], Schwertwolf [sword wolf], etc.; ideas which recur in names like Guntbern (‘Kampf’ [fight, battle] + Bär [bear]) or Hiltulf (‘Kampf’ + wolf).
    These same animals were also chosen as pictorial motifs on Germanic weapons, jewelry and artifacts.
    Fig A4 shows a gilded bronze buckle of the 7th Century from Zealand bearing a man's mask which is symmetrically framed by eagle, boar and wolf heads. Next to it, a helmet fitting from Torslunda, [Öland, Sweden] depicts warriors with a boar on their helmet.

    1 Also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones they settled in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st C. expanded into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. A conventional term which groups early West Germanic dialects ancestral to High German is Irminonic or Elbe Germanic.
    2 Ingaevones or, as Pliny more accurately writes, Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi"), are described in Tacitus's Germania and were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands. By the 1st C. they had become further differentiated into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles. The postulated common group of closely related dialects of the Ingvaeones is called Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic.
    3 Förstermann, E., Altdeutsches Namenbuch. Band (vol) I: Personennamen. Bonn. 1901
    4 Image #1: Suitable online image for picture in book unable to be found. Image #2: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/96/fa/36/96fa36a379446f12bcab34040a7dde29.jpg
    (view changes)
    2:26 pm

Sunday, May 21

  1. page German Onomastics - Given Names from Divine and Animal Sources edited ... Aus solchen Rufnamen entstanden Familiennamen wie Engberding, Ingram, Ingerl(e), Enger(s), Ing…
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    Aus solchen Rufnamen entstanden Familiennamen wie Engberding, Ingram, Ingerl(e), Enger(s), Ing-, Eng(e)wald bzw. Irmert, Emmert, Armending, Irmer, Emrath, E(r)mrich, Irm(i)sch(er), Erm(e)ke.
    In den religiösen Bereich führen auch die Namen mit run ‚Rune, Zauber‘: Runfrid, Hild-, Sig-, Ortrun. Dies ist evtl. auch der Fall bei ragin- (rein-) ‚Ratschluß (des Schicksals?)‘ in Rei(n)mar, -hart, -frid, -hold, -mund usw., woraus über 300 Familiennamen stammen: Reimer(s), Reiner(s), Reimann, Rembrandt…
    vvvvvTheriophor nennt man Namen, die eine Tierbezeichnung als Bestandteil enthalten. Sie waren bei den Germ bes. beliebt, vgl.:
    Arnhild ‚Adler‘ + ‚Kampf‘, Rambod ‚Rabe‘ + ‚Bote, Gebieter‘, Wolfgang/Gang(w)olf ‚Wolf‘ + ‚(Waffen)gang‘, Bernhard ‚Bär‘ + ‚stark‘. Förstemann belegt über 140 Rufnamen mit ‚-Rabe‘, 70 mit ‚Eber-‘.
    Insgesamt begegnen in germ. Rufnamen folgende Tiere: Adler, Bär, Bock, Eber, Falke (Habicht), Hirsch, Hund, Krähe, Marder, Rabe, Roß, Schwan, Stier, Widder, Wolf, Wurm (=Lindwurm, Schlange, Drache).
    Viele dieser Tiere sind stark, aggressiv usw.; daher dürften solche Namen in Verbindung mit der Vorstellung vom Mann als Krieger zu sehen sein. Dieser wird auch von Dichtern metaphorisch als Kampfbär, Schwertwolf usw. umschrieben, Vorstellungen, die auch in Namen wie Guntbern (‚Kampf‘ + ‚Bär‘) oder Hiltulf (‚Kampf‘ + ‚Wolf‘) wieder kehren.

    English Translation
    Kunze, Konrad
    ...
    From these given names emerged surnames such as Engberding, Ingram, Ingerl(e) Enger(s), Ing- Eng(e)wald, etc., Irmert, Emmert, Armending, Irmer, Emrath, E(r)mrich, Irm(i)sch(er), Erm(e)ke.
    In this religious range of names belong also the names using run ‘rune, magic’: Runfrid, Hild-, Sig-, Ortrun. This is possibly also the case with ragin- (rein-) ‘will (of fate, destiny?), kismet ' in Rei(n)mar, -hart, -frid, -hold, -mund, etc., from which over 300 surnames stem: Reimer(s), Reiner(s), Reimann, Rembrandt, to name a few.
    vvvvvvTheriophors are names which contain animal characteristics as a component. They were especially popular among the Germanic tribes, cf.:
    Arnhild [‘Adler‘ (eagle) + ‘Kampf‘ (battle)], Rambod, [‘Rabe‘ (raven) + ‘Bote‘ (messenger), Gebieter (master, lord)], Wolfgang/Gang(w)olf [‘wolf‘ + ‘(Waffen)gang‘ (engagement, clash, conflict)], Bernhard [Bär (bear) + stark (strong)]. Förstermann3 has about 140 given names with –Rabe; 70 with Eber- (wild boar).
    On the whole the following animals are encountered in Germanic given names: Adler [eagle], Bär [bear], Bock [goat], Eber, Falke (Habicht) [falcon or hawk], Hirsch [stag, deer], Hund [dog], Krähe [crow], Marder [marten, weasel], Rabe, Roß [horse, thoroughbred], Schwan [swan], Stier [bull], Widder [ram], wolf, Wurm (this term encompasses Lindwurm [Wyvern, wingless dragon], Schlange [serpent, snake], Drache [dragon].
    Many of these animals are strong, aggressive, etc., therefore such names are likely to be associated with the idea of a man seen as a warrior. These are also metaphorically paraphrased by poets as Kampfbär [battle bear], Schwertwolf [sword wolf], etc.; ideas which recur in names like Guntbern (‘Kampf’ [fight, battle] + Bär [bear]) or Hiltulf (‘Kampf’ + wolf).

    1 Also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones they settled in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st C. expanded into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. A conventional term which groups early West Germanic dialects ancestral to High German is Irminonic or Elbe Germanic.
    2 Ingaevones or, as Pliny more accurately writes, Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi"), are described in Tacitus's Germania and were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands. By the 1st C. they had become further differentiated into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles. The postulated common group of closely related dialects of the Ingvaeones is called Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic.
    3 Förstermann, E., Altdeutsches Namenbuch. Band (vol) I: Personennamen. Bonn. 1901
    (view changes)
    9:38 pm

Saturday, May 20

  1. page German Onomastics - Given Names from Divine and Animal Sources edited ... Ing(e)bert, -brand , -frid, -borg, -gerd, -tr(a)du bzw. Irma, Irm(en)-, Erm-, Ehrentr(a)ud, Ar…
    ...
    Ing(e)bert, -brand , -frid, -borg, -gerd, -tr(a)du bzw. Irma, Irm(en)-, Erm-, Ehrentr(a)ud, Armgard, Emma.
    Aus solchen Rufnamen entstanden Familiennamen wie Engberding, Ingram, Ingerl(e), Enger(s), Ing-, Eng(e)wald bzw. Irmert, Emmert, Armending, Irmer, Emrath, E(r)mrich, Irm(i)sch(er), Erm(e)ke.
    mmmmIn den religiösen Bereich führen auch die Namen mit run ‚Rune, Zauber‘: Runfrid, Hild-, Sig-, Ortrun. Dies ist evtl. auch der Fall bei ragin- (rein-) ‚Ratschluß (des Schicksals?)‘ in Rei(n)mar, -hart, -frid, -hold, -mund usw., woraus über 300 Familiennamen stammen: Reimer(s), Reiner(s), Reimann, Rembrandt…
    vvvvv

    English Translation
    Kunze, Konrad
    ...
    Ing(e)bert, -brand, -frid, -borg, -gerd, -tr(a)ud, etc., Irma, Irm(en)-, Erm-, Eh- rentr(a)ud, Armgard, and Emma.
    From these given names emerged surnames such as Engberding, Ingram, Ingerl(e) Enger(s), Ing- Eng(e)wald, etc., Irmert, Emmert, Armending, Irmer, Emrath, E(r)mrich, Irm(i)sch(er), Erm(e)ke.
    mmmIn this religious range of names belong also the names using run ‘rune, magic’: Runfrid, Hild-, Sig-, Ortrun. This is possibly also the case with ragin- (rein-) ‘will (of fate, destiny?), kismet ' in Rei(n)mar, -hart, -frid, -hold, -mund, etc., from which over 300 surnames stem: Reimer(s), Reiner(s), Reimann, Rembrandt, to name a few.
    vvvvvv

    1 Also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones they settled in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st C. expanded into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. A conventional term which groups early West Germanic dialects ancestral to High German is Irminonic or Elbe Germanic.
    2 Ingaevones or, as Pliny more accurately writes, Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi"), are described in Tacitus's Germania and were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands. By the 1st C. they had become further differentiated into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles. The postulated common group of closely related dialects of the Ingvaeones is called Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic.
    (view changes)
    8:33 pm
  2. page German Onomastics - Given Names from Divine and Animal Sources edited ... -alb (mythisches Wesen, Elf(e)) in Alberich (‚Alb‘ + ‚mächtig’), Alfred (+ ‚Rat‘), in Alboin (…
    ...
    -alb (mythisches Wesen, Elf(e)) in Alberich (‚Alb‘ + ‚mächtig’), Alfred (+ ‚Rat‘), in Alboin (+ ‚Freund‘),Elftraud (aber Elfriede: adal ‚edel‘ + ‚Friede‘);
    got (etymolog. von gießen, wohl ‘Wesen, dem man Opfer gießt’). Das Wort got war vor der Christianisierung Neutrum und tritt daher nur als Erstglied auf: Gotfrid, -hard, -lind, -hild, -bert.
    mmmDie germ. Kultverbände der Ingväonen und Irminonen sind nach den Gottheiten Inguaz und Irmin benannt. Beide Götternamen finden sich in Rufnamen wie
    Ing(e)bert, -brand , -frid, -borg, -gerd, -tr(a)du bzw. Irma, Irm(en)-, Erm-, Ehrentr(a)ud, Armgard, Emma.
    Aus solchen Rufnamen entstanden Familiennamen wie Engberding, Ingram, Ingerl(e), Enger(s), Ing-, Eng(e)wald bzw. Irmert, Emmert, Armending, Irmer, Emrath, E(r)mrich, Irm(i)sch(er), Erm(e)ke.
    mmmm

    English Translation
    Kunze, Konrad
    ...
    -alb (mythical creatures, elf or elves) in Alberich (‘Alb '+ [mächtig] ‘powerful'), in Alfred (+ [Rat] ‘counsel, advice‘), in Alboin (+ [Freund ] 'friend'), in Elftraud (but Elfriede is derived from adal, or [edel] ‘ noble' + [Friede] 'peace')
    got (etymologically from the verb ‘to pour’, probably ‘beings from whom pour offerings/sacrifice’). The word got was neuter before Christianization and therefore occurs only as a prototheme in Gotfrid, -hard, -lind, -hild, and -bert.
    mmmmmThe Germanic religious cult groups of the Irminones1 and Ingväonen2 are named from the deities Irmin and Inguaz. Both deity’s names are found in given names such as:
    Ing(e)bert, -brand, -frid, -borg, -gerd, -tr(a)ud, etc., Irma, Irm(en)-, Erm-, Eh- rentr(a)ud, Armgard, and Emma.
    From these given names emerged surnames such as Engberding, Ingram, Ingerl(e) Enger(s), Ing- Eng(e)wald, etc., Irmert, Emmert, Armending, Irmer, Emrath, E(r)mrich, Irm(i)sch(er), Erm(e)ke.
    mmm
    1 Also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones they settled in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st C. expanded into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. A conventional term which groups early West Germanic dialects ancestral to High German is Irminonic or Elbe Germanic.
    2 Ingaevones or, as Pliny more accurately writes, Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi"), are described in Tacitus's Germania and were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands. By the 1st C. they had become further differentiated into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles. The postulated common group of closely related dialects of the Ingvaeones is called Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic.

    (view changes)
    6:32 pm

Friday, May 19

  1. page German Onomastics - Given Names from Divine and Animal Sources edited ... Names of this type can be further subdivided into Theophors and Theriophors. In ancient times,…
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    Names of this type can be further subdivided into Theophors and Theriophors. In ancient times, given names of this type (up to about the 4th century) certainly stated something - be it that they brought a desire of the parents for the child's future or mythical ideas to be expressed - but soon thereafter came the tendency to combine the two name elements purely mechanically.
    Translated excerpts directly multiple sources listed in References.
    Article in progress and as such not complete!
    Translated by Gotfrid von Schwaben
    Revised May 23, 2017 9:40 pm.
    (view changes)
    9:48 pm
  2. page German Onomastics - Given Names from Divine and Animal Sources edited ... Jonathan und Nathanael ‚Jahwe/Gott hat gegeben‘, Jojakim (Joachim) ‚Jahwe/Gott richte(t) auf‘,…
    ...
    Jonathan und Nathanael ‚Jahwe/Gott hat gegeben‘, Jojakim (Joachim) ‚Jahwe/Gott richte(t) auf‘, Jochanan (griech. Johannes) ‚Jahwe hat sich erbarmt‘, Joseph ‚Jahwe möge (weitere Kinder) hinzufügen‘; Elija/Elias ‚mein Gott ist Jahwe‘, Elisabeth ‚Gott hat geschworen‘ oder ‚Gott ist Vollkommenheit‘, Daniel ‚Gott richtet‘, Gabriel ‚Gott hat sich stark gezeigt, Stärke Gottes, Mann Gottes‘, Michael ‚wer ist wie Gott‘, Raphael ‚Gott hat geheilt‘, Samuel ‚der (ungenannte) Gott ist El‘, Uriel ‚Gott ist mein Licht‘. (S. auch S. 39)
    Bei den Germanen begegnen einzelne Götter in Rufnamen erst etwa seit dem 10. Jh. N. Chr., vor allem in Norden. Thor findet sich in der Wikingerzeit in ca. 70 Rufnamen (Thor-sten ‚Stein‘, -leif ‚Erbe‘, -hild ‚Kampf‘, -wald ‚Gebieter‘), Freyr in 10, Odin in 3. Wahrscheinlich waren, als die älteren Rufnamen entstanden, die germ. Göttergestalten noch nicht so als Personen ausgeprägt. Jedenfalls finden sich in germ. Rufnamen vor dem 10. Jh. nur allgemeine Bezeichnungen für göttliche(s) Wesen:
    ans (Ase; zur Göttergruppe der Asen gehören Odin, Thor, usw.) in Ans(h)elm, -gar;
    -alb (mythisches Wesen, Elf(e)) in Alberich (‚Alb‘ + ‚mächtig’), Alfred (+ ‚Rat‘), in Alboin (+ ‚Freund‘),Elftraud (aber Elfriede: adal ‚edel‘ + ‚Friede‘);
    got (etymolog. von gießen, wohl ‘Wesen, dem man Opfer gießt’). Das Wort got war vor der Christianisierung Neutrum und tritt daher nur als Erstglied auf: Gotfrid, -hard, -lind, -hild, -bert.
    mmm

    English Translation
    Kunze, Konrad
    ...
    Jonathan and Nathaniel ‘Yahweh/God has given’; Jojakim (Joachim) ‘Yahweh/God helps/supports'; Jochanan [Greek: John] ‘Yahweh takes pity on one / is merciful’; Joseph ‘Yahweh may add [more children]’; Elijah/Elias ‘my God is Yahweh’; Elizabeth ‘God has sworn’ or ‘God is perfection’; Daniel ‘God judges’; Gabriel ‘God has shown himself strong’, ‘strength of God’ or ‘man of God’; Michael ‘one who is like God’; Raphael ‘God has healed’; Samuel ‘the (unnamed) God is El(ohim)’; and Uriel ‘God is my light’. (See also p. 39)
    Among the Teutons, one first encounters individual gods' names within given names around the 10th C., especially in the north. Thor can be found during the Viking Age in about 70 given names (Thor-sten '[Stein] stone', -lief 'heritage' or ‘legacy’, -hild ‘fight’ or ‘battle’, -wald, ‘master, lord'), Freyr in 10, and Odin in 3. As the older given names originated, the Germanic gods had not likely yet developed as actual “people”. In any case, only a general designation for divine beings can found in Germanic given names before the 10th century:
    ans (Ase; from the group of gods known as Aesir to which Odin, Thor, etc. belong) evidenced in Ans(h)elm, -gar;
    -alb (mythical creatures, elf or elves) in Alberich (‘Alb '+ [mächtig] ‘powerful'), in Alfred (+ [Rat] ‘counsel, advice‘), in Alboin (+ [Freund ] 'friend'), in Elftraud (but Elfriede is derived from adal, or [edel] ‘ noble' + [Friede] 'peace')
    got (etymologically from the verb ‘to pour’, probably ‘beings from whom pour offerings/sacrifice’). The word got was neuter before Christianization and therefore occurs only as a prototheme in Gotfrid, -hard, -lind, -hild, and -bert.
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